Website for ruminations on particle physics, book style

View the Project on GitHub arivero/particles


The idea of this project is to collect my own views on possible paths beyond the standard model, predicting some of the content that currently looks ad-hoc

Plan is to include an heterogenous mix of references to preprints and blog entries, and go refining the explanation of its content, so while in principle it starts as a continuation and extension of my old research page, the ideal final product should be self contained, I hope.


Non commutative geometry

String theory

Space dimensions

As we know the answer, it is very easy to speculate about things that happens where d=3, or just cases where the number 3 appears.

On other hand, the content of supergravity, and thus of string theory, have some objects with a natural split in 4+7 dimensions, or 7+4... they come in dual pairs.


empirical formulae

Koide formula for leptons is not really empirical, it is deriver from an abandoned model of preons. But that is the formula for charged leptons. We have found it to be good enough for quark sequences, and then a main idea is that it could be justified by some other kind of composites.

dual from strings

blog:Notes on 84

Supergravity, or the M-theory, contains two dual objects of 84 components: the Ramond fields of the M2-brane and the M5-brane. On the other hand, the standard models fermions total 96 degrees of freedom, but if we look at their Dirac masses then we can say that 84 of them have zero mass and 12 of them, the ones of the top quark, have mass of the order of the electroweak scale. And if we look at the Majorana masses, we can say that 84 have zero mass and 12 of them, the ones of the three right neutrinos, have non null Majorana mass (of the order of Planck/gravity scale?)

So it would be very interesting to produce a mass protection symmetry related to the Ramond fields, where the duality should translate to one or other kind of mass terms.

number of generations

the sBootstrap justifies it.

symmetry group

the sBootstrap idea invites to generate groups bigger than $SO(30)$ and there is the problem of introducing chirality. Perhaps

$$SO(32) \longleftrightarrow E_8 \times E_8 $$

is the way to relate chiral and not chiral

other ideas


This is for standard references, i.e. papers not from me, published

@article{RevModPhys.50.721, title = {Color embeddings, charge assignments, and proton stability in unified gauge theories}, author = {Gell-Mann, M. and Ramond, P. and Slansky, R.}, journal = {Rev. Mod. Phys.}, volume = {50}, issue = {4}, pages = {721--744}, numpages = {0}, year = {1978}, month = {Oct}, publisher = {American Physical Society}, doi = {10.1103/RevModPhys.50.721}, url = {} }